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The navigation system is the "eyes" of the UAV, and the combination of multiple technologies is the direction of future development. Moreover responsible for providing the UAV with vector information such as the position, speed, and flight attitude of the reference coordinate system to guide the UAV to fly according to the designated route, which is equivalent to the pilot in the manned aircraft system.
UAV navigation system are mainly divided into non-autonomous (GPS, etc.) and autonomous (inertial guidance), but they have the disadvantages of susceptibility to interference and increased error accumulation.
The future development of UAVs requires obstacle avoidance, material or Weapon launching, Functions such as automatic approach landing require high precision, high reliability, and high anti-jamming performance. Therefore, "inertial + multi-sensor + GPS + photoelectric navigation system" combined with multiple navigation technologies will be the direction of future development.
The power system of UAV usually consists of two types: electric motor and internal combustion engine. The current mainstream main shafts are mainly electric motors, which are commonly known as motors. Its main function is to generate driving torque. As the power source of electrical appliances or various machinery, it is an electromagnetic device that relies on the law of electromagnetic induction to realize electric energy conversion or transmission. The electric power system of the drone includes a motor, an ESC (to control the speed of the motor), a propeller, and a battery.
The motors are mostly brushless motors. Its rotor is permanent magnet steel and is connected to the shell and output shaft together. However, the stator is a winding coil, which removes the commutation brushes that has brush click and alternate electromagnetic fields.
ESC (Electronic Speed Controller, ESC) adjusts the conversion of the motor according to the control signal. Whether each part of the UAV power system matches, including whether the power system matches the whole machine, has a direct impact on the working efficiency and stability of the UAV, so the power system is very important.
Because of the UAV flight control system existence, it can fly in a stable attitude. It is the control system for autonomous or semi-autonomous flight of drones, and it is also the brain of drones. Its main components are composed of gyroscope (flight attitude perception), accelerometer, geomagnetic induction, GPS module (optional), and control circuit. The main function of the UAV flight control system is to automatically maintain the aircraft's normal flight attitude.
Open source of the flight control system is an automatic flight controller project (Open Source Auto Pilot) based on open source ideas. At the same time, it includes open source software and open source hardware, while the software includes the firmware in the flight control hardware and the ground station software.
Fans of drones can participate not only in software development, but also in hardware development. In addition to buying hardware to develop software, you can also make your own hardware, so that more people can freely enjoy the development results of the project. The use of drone open source projects is commercial, so each open source flight control project will give official legal terms to define the rights of developers and users. Different open source flight control have different legal definitions.
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